Academic research

<p>Some of the strongest academic&nbsp;evidence regarding interventions to enhance personal resilience&nbsp;at work has been summarised below.&nbsp; These are empirical studies or work of publishable quality. There has been a lot of research into how resilience can be improved, with much of the research&nbsp;focusing on a wide range of protective factors which are associated with&nbsp;&nbsp;building personal resilience.</p> <p>Unfortunately, there is no single protective factor or combination of resources that consistently leads to resilience for all individuals. Neither is there consistency in terms of our experience of adversity as&nbsp;one person&rsquo;s adverse event may be another&rsquo;s pleasure.The various protective factors do not in themselves infer resilience but rather the level of exposure and interaction between the factors is more influential. It is thought that the more protective factors within an intervention&nbsp;the better, as different situations demand different factors in order to be resilient.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p>
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Author: Robertson, Cooper, Sarkar, & Curran

Resilience training in the workplace from 2003 to 2014: A systematic review (2015)

Resilience training in the workplace from 2003 to 2014: A systematic review (2015)

This paper reviewed fourteen studies which included eight hundred participants from four different countries (Australia, Sweden, UK and USA). The aim of this review was to understand the current literature surrounding resilience training and its effect on positive change in personal resilience, mental health/wellbeing, biological/psychosocial outcomes and job performance. Thirteen of the fourteen studies found significant changes in at least one measure, although, none of the measures were found to be statistically significant across all studies. Despite all the interventions being aimed at developing resilience, the authors noted the wide range of intervention content. For example, one resilience program focused on optimism, problem solving and emotional awareness, whilst another focuses on how an individual can self-regulate their stress levels. Therefore, there appears to be various protective factors which can enhance resilience, with no evidence to suggest that one is more effective than the others. 

Author: Vanhove, Herian, Perez, Harms & Lester

Can resilience be developed at work? A meta‐analytic review of resilience‐building programme effectiveness (2016)

Can resilience be developed at work? A meta‐analytic review of resilience‐building programme effectiveness (2016)

The aims of this meta-analysis were three-fold; 1) to review the literature on the effectiveness of resilience-building programs at work, 2) to investigate the influence of various moderators on the effectiveness of resilience-building programs and 3) to gain an understanding of such programs on performance, well-being and the prevention of psychological deficits in workers. Their results showed that resilience programs were found to have a significant effect on performance and well-being in workers. However, where the program was implemented universally, the effects diminished rapidly over time. Conversely, in cases which were targeted to individuals thought to be at risk or lacking in protective characteristics, increased effects were found following the program. In terms of delivery of resilience programs, the findings suggest one-to-one delivery had the strongest effect. In addition, the authors found the effects of resilience programs to be generalisable as there were no differences across military versus non-military populations.

Author: Millear, Liossis, Shochet, Biggs & Donald

Being on PAR: outcomes of a pilot trial to improve mental health and wellbeing in the workplace with the Promoting Adult Resilience (PAR) Program (2008)

Being on PAR: outcomes of a pilot trial to improve mental health and wellbeing in the workplace with the Promoting Adult Resilience (PAR) Program (2008)

The aim of this study was to evaluate and trial the Promoting Adult Resilience (PAR) program, which focused on understanding personal strengths/resilience, managing stress, self-talk cognitive behavioural principles, problem solving and interpersonal skills. Twenty-eight volunteer participants from the resource sector in Australia and seventy-one university alumni took part in the trial which measured changes in mental health and well-being outcomes, coping, self-efficacy and social skills. In addition, the program was evaluated on its effectiveness and on participant’s satisfaction with the measure. The findings showed that participants in the PAR group had significantly improved self-efficacy and lower stress levels of depression, however, the comparison group variables remained unchanged. In addition, several variables had no significant changes; life satisfaction, psychological well-being, work satisfaction and work-life balance. Overall these findings suggest that PAR can be a useful mental health prevention program and that it is possible to teach resilience skills in the workplace.

Author: Waite & Richardson

Determining the efficacy of resiliency training in the work site (2004)

Determining the efficacy of resiliency training in the work site (2004)

One hundred and fifty participants were split into a training group or control group. The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of a resilience program and its effect on various outcomes; resilience/reintegration, self-esteem, locus of control, purpose in life, interpersonal relations and job satisfaction. The personal resilience and resilient relationships program (PRRR) included the following aspects; understanding and nurturing resilience, reflection on personal experiences, practical experience and skills which can improve performance, understanding how to deal with adversity and challenges, recognising behaviours which compromise on job productivity and happiness and developing interpersonal skills. The findings showed that the training group had significant positive changes on five measures, with the exception of job satisfaction (although it was suggested that resilience training may have acted as a buffer against a decrease in job satisfaction which was found in the control group). There were no significant positive effects found in the control group.

Author: Arnetz, Nevedal, Lumley, Backman & Lublin

Trauma resilience training for police: Psychophysiological and performance effects (2009)

Trauma resilience training for police: Psychophysiological and performance effects (2009)

In this study eighteen Swedish male police officers were randomly assigned to a relaxation and imagery training group (to train and practice in progressive and cue-controlled relaxation methods) or a control group. This study aimed to evaluate the trauma resilience program and its influence on psychological stress, performance, mood and biological/psychophysiological measures in a police critical incident work simulation. Those in the training group undertook a psychoeducational session and ten weekly, relaxation and imagery training sessions (to enable officers to induce relaxation regardless of the situation). Following the work stimulation, the training group reported significantly less negative mood in comparison to the control group. In addition, a blinded observer rated the imagery-trained group as performing significantly better than the controls. These findings suggest that the context specific training reduced distress/psychological stress (indicated by biological measures) and improved job performance when officers were exposed to a stressful critical incident simulation.

Author: Sood, Prasad, Schroeder & Varkey

Stress management and resilience training among Department of Medicine faculty: a pilot randomized clinical trial (2011)

Stress management and resilience training among Department of Medicine faculty: a pilot randomized clinical trial (2011)

This articles aim was to evaluate the effect of a Stress Management and Resilience Training (SMART) program on a number of outcomes; resilience, quality of life, stress and anxiety. The SMART program aims to decrease stress and enhance resilience by focusing on attention and interpretation of experiences. Thirty-two medical physicians completed the study and were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The results from this study found that there was a significant improvement across all measures for the participants involved in the SMART program, in comparison to the control group. These results suggest that the SMART program can improve resilience and quality of life, whilst reducing stress and anxiety amongst physicians. However, there are some limitations in this study to consider including; small sample size, varied attrition levels across each of the groups and having an open trail (whereby researchers and participants know which treatment they are receiving).

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Author: Robertson, Cooper, Sarkar, & Curran

Resilience training in the workplace from 2003 to 2014: A systematic review (2015)

Resilience training in the workplace from 2003 to 2014: A systematic review (2015)

This paper reviewed fourteen studies which included eight hundred participants from four different countries (Australia, Sweden, UK and USA). The aim of this review was to understand the current literature surrounding resilience training and its effect on positive change in personal resilience, mental health/wellbeing, biological/psychosocial outcomes and job performance. Thirteen of the fourteen studies found significant changes in at least one measure, although, none of the measures were found to be statistically significant across all studies. Despite all the interventions being aimed at developing resilience, the authors noted the wide range of intervention content. For example, one resilience program focused on optimism, problem solving and emotional awareness, whilst another focuses on how an individual can self-regulate their stress levels. Therefore, there appears to be various protective factors which can enhance resilience, with no evidence to suggest that one is more effective than the others. 

Author: Robertson, Cooper, Sarkar, & Curran

Resilience training in the workplace from 2003 to 2014: A systematic review (2015)

This paper reviewed fourteen studies which included eight hundred participants from four different countries (Australia, Sweden, UK and USA). The aim of this review was to understand the current literature surrounding resilience training and its effect on positive change in personal resilience, mental health/wellbeing, biological/psychosocial outcomes and job performance. Thirteen of the fourteen studies found significant changes in at least one measure, although, none of the measures were found to be statistically significant across all studies. Despite all the interventions being aimed at developing resilience, the authors noted the wide range of intervention content. For example, one resilience program focused on optimism, problem solving and emotional awareness, whilst another focuses on how an individual can self-regulate their stress levels. Therefore, there appears to be various protective factors which can enhance resilience, with no evidence to suggest that one is more effective than the others. 

x
Author: Vanhove, Herian, Perez, Harms & Lester

Can resilience be developed at work? A meta‐analytic review of resilience‐building programme effectiveness (2016)

Can resilience be developed at work? A meta‐analytic review of resilience‐building programme effectiveness (2016)

The aims of this meta-analysis were three-fold; 1) to review the literature on the effectiveness of resilience-building programs at work, 2) to investigate the influence of various moderators on the effectiveness of resilience-building programs and 3) to gain an understanding of such programs on performance, well-being and the prevention of psychological deficits in workers. Their results showed that resilience programs were found to have a significant effect on performance and well-being in workers. However, where the program was implemented universally, the effects diminished rapidly over time. Conversely, in cases which were targeted to individuals thought to be at risk or lacking in protective characteristics, increased effects were found following the program. In terms of delivery of resilience programs, the findings suggest one-to-one delivery had the strongest effect. In addition, the authors found the effects of resilience programs to be generalisable as there were no differences across military versus non-military populations.

Author: Vanhove, Herian, Perez, Harms & Lester

Can resilience be developed at work? A meta‐analytic review of resilience‐building programme effectiveness (2016)

The aims of this meta-analysis were three-fold; 1) to review the literature on the effectiveness of resilience-building programs at work, 2) to investigate the influence of various moderators on the effectiveness of resilience-building programs and 3) to gain an understanding of such programs on performance, well-being and the prevention of psychological deficits in workers. Their results showed that resilience programs were found to have a significant effect on performance and well-being in workers. However, where the program was implemented universally, the effects diminished rapidly over time. Conversely, in cases which were targeted to individuals thought to be at risk or lacking in protective characteristics, increased effects were found following the program. In terms of delivery of resilience programs, the findings suggest one-to-one delivery had the strongest effect. In addition, the authors found the effects of resilience programs to be generalisable as there were no differences across military versus non-military populations.

x
Author: Millear, Liossis, Shochet, Biggs & Donald

Being on PAR: outcomes of a pilot trial to improve mental health and wellbeing in the workplace with the Promoting Adult Resilience (PAR) Program (2008)

Being on PAR: outcomes of a pilot trial to improve mental health and wellbeing in the workplace with the Promoting Adult Resilience (PAR) Program (2008)

The aim of this study was to evaluate and trial the Promoting Adult Resilience (PAR) program, which focused on understanding personal strengths/resilience, managing stress, self-talk cognitive behavioural principles, problem solving and interpersonal skills. Twenty-eight volunteer participants from the resource sector in Australia and seventy-one university alumni took part in the trial which measured changes in mental health and well-being outcomes, coping, self-efficacy and social skills. In addition, the program was evaluated on its effectiveness and on participant’s satisfaction with the measure. The findings showed that participants in the PAR group had significantly improved self-efficacy and lower stress levels of depression, however, the comparison group variables remained unchanged. In addition, several variables had no significant changes; life satisfaction, psychological well-being, work satisfaction and work-life balance. Overall these findings suggest that PAR can be a useful mental health prevention program and that it is possible to teach resilience skills in the workplace.

Author: Millear, Liossis, Shochet, Biggs & Donald

Being on PAR: outcomes of a pilot trial to improve mental health and wellbeing in the workplace with the Promoting Adult Resilience (PAR) Program (2008)

The aim of this study was to evaluate and trial the Promoting Adult Resilience (PAR) program, which focused on understanding personal strengths/resilience, managing stress, self-talk cognitive behavioural principles, problem solving and interpersonal skills. Twenty-eight volunteer participants from the resource sector in Australia and seventy-one university alumni took part in the trial which measured changes in mental health and well-being outcomes, coping, self-efficacy and social skills. In addition, the program was evaluated on its effectiveness and on participant’s satisfaction with the measure. The findings showed that participants in the PAR group had significantly improved self-efficacy and lower stress levels of depression, however, the comparison group variables remained unchanged. In addition, several variables had no significant changes; life satisfaction, psychological well-being, work satisfaction and work-life balance. Overall these findings suggest that PAR can be a useful mental health prevention program and that it is possible to teach resilience skills in the workplace.

x
Author: Waite & Richardson

Determining the efficacy of resiliency training in the work site (2004)

Determining the efficacy of resiliency training in the work site (2004)

One hundred and fifty participants were split into a training group or control group. The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of a resilience program and its effect on various outcomes; resilience/reintegration, self-esteem, locus of control, purpose in life, interpersonal relations and job satisfaction. The personal resilience and resilient relationships program (PRRR) included the following aspects; understanding and nurturing resilience, reflection on personal experiences, practical experience and skills which can improve performance, understanding how to deal with adversity and challenges, recognising behaviours which compromise on job productivity and happiness and developing interpersonal skills. The findings showed that the training group had significant positive changes on five measures, with the exception of job satisfaction (although it was suggested that resilience training may have acted as a buffer against a decrease in job satisfaction which was found in the control group). There were no significant positive effects found in the control group.

Author: Waite & Richardson

Determining the efficacy of resiliency training in the work site (2004)

One hundred and fifty participants were split into a training group or control group. The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of a resilience program and its effect on various outcomes; resilience/reintegration, self-esteem, locus of control, purpose in life, interpersonal relations and job satisfaction. The personal resilience and resilient relationships program (PRRR) included the following aspects; understanding and nurturing resilience, reflection on personal experiences, practical experience and skills which can improve performance, understanding how to deal with adversity and challenges, recognising behaviours which compromise on job productivity and happiness and developing interpersonal skills. The findings showed that the training group had significant positive changes on five measures, with the exception of job satisfaction (although it was suggested that resilience training may have acted as a buffer against a decrease in job satisfaction which was found in the control group). There were no significant positive effects found in the control group.

x
Author: Arnetz, Nevedal, Lumley, Backman & Lublin

Trauma resilience training for police: Psychophysiological and performance effects (2009)

Trauma resilience training for police: Psychophysiological and performance effects (2009)

In this study eighteen Swedish male police officers were randomly assigned to a relaxation and imagery training group (to train and practice in progressive and cue-controlled relaxation methods) or a control group. This study aimed to evaluate the trauma resilience program and its influence on psychological stress, performance, mood and biological/psychophysiological measures in a police critical incident work simulation. Those in the training group undertook a psychoeducational session and ten weekly, relaxation and imagery training sessions (to enable officers to induce relaxation regardless of the situation). Following the work stimulation, the training group reported significantly less negative mood in comparison to the control group. In addition, a blinded observer rated the imagery-trained group as performing significantly better than the controls. These findings suggest that the context specific training reduced distress/psychological stress (indicated by biological measures) and improved job performance when officers were exposed to a stressful critical incident simulation.

Author: Arnetz, Nevedal, Lumley, Backman & Lublin

Trauma resilience training for police: Psychophysiological and performance effects (2009)

In this study eighteen Swedish male police officers were randomly assigned to a relaxation and imagery training group (to train and practice in progressive and cue-controlled relaxation methods) or a control group. This study aimed to evaluate the trauma resilience program and its influence on psychological stress, performance, mood and biological/psychophysiological measures in a police critical incident work simulation. Those in the training group undertook a psychoeducational session and ten weekly, relaxation and imagery training sessions (to enable officers to induce relaxation regardless of the situation). Following the work stimulation, the training group reported significantly less negative mood in comparison to the control group. In addition, a blinded observer rated the imagery-trained group as performing significantly better than the controls. These findings suggest that the context specific training reduced distress/psychological stress (indicated by biological measures) and improved job performance when officers were exposed to a stressful critical incident simulation.

x
Author: Sood, Prasad, Schroeder & Varkey

Stress management and resilience training among Department of Medicine faculty: a pilot randomized clinical trial (2011)

Stress management and resilience training among Department of Medicine faculty: a pilot randomized clinical trial (2011)

This articles aim was to evaluate the effect of a Stress Management and Resilience Training (SMART) program on a number of outcomes; resilience, quality of life, stress and anxiety. The SMART program aims to decrease stress and enhance resilience by focusing on attention and interpretation of experiences. Thirty-two medical physicians completed the study and were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The results from this study found that there was a significant improvement across all measures for the participants involved in the SMART program, in comparison to the control group. These results suggest that the SMART program can improve resilience and quality of life, whilst reducing stress and anxiety amongst physicians. However, there are some limitations in this study to consider including; small sample size, varied attrition levels across each of the groups and having an open trail (whereby researchers and participants know which treatment they are receiving).

Author: Sood, Prasad, Schroeder & Varkey

Stress management and resilience training among Department of Medicine faculty: a pilot randomized clinical trial (2011)

This articles aim was to evaluate the effect of a Stress Management and Resilience Training (SMART) program on a number of outcomes; resilience, quality of life, stress and anxiety. The SMART program aims to decrease stress and enhance resilience by focusing on attention and interpretation of experiences. Thirty-two medical physicians completed the study and were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The results from this study found that there was a significant improvement across all measures for the participants involved in the SMART program, in comparison to the control group. These results suggest that the SMART program can improve resilience and quality of life, whilst reducing stress and anxiety amongst physicians. However, there are some limitations in this study to consider including; small sample size, varied attrition levels across each of the groups and having an open trail (whereby researchers and participants know which treatment they are receiving).

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