This systematic review examined 40 studies that included a mixture of interventions, such as adapted Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) (Kabat-Zinn, 1990), meditation, yoga and relaxation through music, adaptations of ACT and a mixture of MBSR and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) (Teasdale, Segal, Williams, Ridgeway, Soulsby, & Lau, 2000).
The results showed that the one of the most popular interventions is MBSR, 75% of the studies had used MBSR or a modified version or aspects of MBSR along with another type of intervention such as MBCT. The study also found that there are a variety of definitions of mindfulness used within papers. Most papers define mindfulness as a state, fewer define it is a practice and even fewer define it as both. However, the authors note that it is important for researchers to define mindfulness and identify which type of definition will be used for their research. Additionally, fewer than 50% of the studies assessed mindfulness before and after the intervention which leads to concerns about internal validity. The results suggested that generally mindfulness interventions have a positive impact on health and well-being although there were a few studies that found differing results. However, it is also important to measure organisational outcomes such as performance, turnover intention and productivity; currently the extant literature examining the impact of mindfulness on these outcomes is inconclusive and further research is required.