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Author: Sinclair et al

Compassion: a scoping review of the healthcare literature (2016)

Compassion: a scoping review of the healthcare literature (2016)

This systematic review includes 44 empirical studies that have been published within the last 25 years. There were six emerging themes which considered the perceptions around compassionate care: 1) nature of compassion, 2) development of compassion, 3) interpersonal factors related to compassion, 4) action and practical compassion, 5) barriers and enablers of compassion, and 6) outcomes of compassion. The intervention studies included eight educational programs to improve compassionate care. The various interventions used compassion workshops, training, role plays, mindfulness, reflective learning and other specific practice (such as palliative care training) and found reported improvements in compassion, and perceptions of compassionate care, self-awareness, clinical communication skills, job satisfaction, satisfaction with care provision, and caregiver and workplace wellness. There were also two clinical intervention randomised control trials, investigating compassionate care compared to usual care. The patient-reported outcomes included physician compassion, perceptions of caregiving and reduced number of repeat visits.

Author: Boellinghaus, Jones & Hutton

The role of mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation in cultivating self-compassion and other-focused concern in health care professionals (2014)

The role of mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation in cultivating self-compassion and other-focused concern in health care professionals (2014)

This paper focuses on reviewing mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and their effectiveness in improving healthcare professionals’ self- compassion and other focused concern. After reviewing the literature in this area, the authors found some support that MBIs can increase self-compassion in healthcare professionals, however, they were mixed findings towards whether MBIs influenced other focused concern. LKMs were found to increase both self-compassion and other focused concern. 

Author: Eriksson, Germundsjo, Astrom & Ronnlund

Mindful Self-compassion Training to Reduce Stress and Burnout Symptoms among practicing psychologists: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Web-Based Intervention (2018)

Mindful Self-compassion Training to Reduce Stress and Burnout Symptoms among practicing psychologists: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Web-Based Intervention (2018)

This randomised control trial study included 81 participants who were all practicing psychologists. The aim was to explore the effects of a 6-week web-based self-compassion intervention on stress and burnout symptoms.  The web-based self-compassion program, which lasted 6 weeks (the intervention was 15 minutes of exercises per day for 6 days a week), included six steps: 1) Kind attention, 2) Kind awareness, 3) Loving kindness with oneself and others, 4) Self-compassion—part 1, 5) Self-compassion—part 2 and 6) Compassion with others and Quiet Practice. Following the trial, the findings showed that the intervention had increased self-compassion (as indicated by the self-compassion scale). Additionally, the intervention group also showed increased mindfulness skills and reductions in perceived stress and burnout symptoms. These findings suggest support for the effectiveness of a web-based self-compassion intervention amongst a sample of psychologists.

Author: Pidegon, Ford & Klaassen

Evaluating the effectiveness of enhancing resilience in human service professionals using a retreat-based Mindfulness with Metta Training Program: a randomised control trial (2014)

Evaluating the effectiveness of enhancing resilience in human service professionals using a retreat-based Mindfulness with Metta Training Program: a randomised control trial (2014)

This study conducted a randomised control trial with 44 HR professionals in Australia. The intervention included a 2.5 day ( which included periods of silence, mindfulness training and mindfulness and loving-kindness skills and cognitive therapy strategies to increase mindfulness and self-compassion), followed by two ‘booster’ sessions, at one and four months after the retreat. The results from this study found that there were no significant differences in self-compassion, mindfulness and resilience between the retreat and control group directly after the intervention. However, at the one and four month follow up, there were significant increases in self-compassion and mindfulness and the four month follow up, an increase in resilience. These results suggest that a retreat-based intervention can improve self-compassion, mindfulness and resilience levels of human services professionals one month and four months post intervention. Importantly, the findings also suggest that self-compassion, mindfulness and resilience may take longer periods of time to develop following an intervention.

Author: Rao & Kemper

Online training in specific meditation practices improves gratitude, well-being, self-compassion, and confidence in providing compassionate care among health professionals (2017)

Online training in specific meditation practices improves gratitude, well-being, self-compassion, and confidence in providing compassionate care among health professionals (2017)

Within this study 177 healthcare professionals, including nurses, physicians, social workers and others, took part in an online meditation training program which aimed to improve participants wellbeing and self-compassion. The program included three modules, each of which took approximately an hour to complete: 1) gratitude, 2) positive word and 3) loving-kindness/compassion meditation. The findings from pre and post module completion suggested that the online training had significantly improved participants self-compassion, wellbeing, gratitude and confidence in providing compassionate care. The results from this study suggest that, a brief online meditation training programme can improve levels of self-compassion, wellbeing, gratitude and confidence in providing compassionate care amongst healthcare professionals.

Author: Beaumont, Durkin, McAndrew & Martin

Using Compassion-Focused Therapy as an adjunct to trauma-focused CBT for fire service personnel suffering with trauma-related symptoms (2016)

Using Compassion-Focused Therapy as an adjunct to trauma-focused CBT for fire service personnel suffering with trauma-related symptoms (2016)

The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT, based on Gilbert’s model to increase awareness and understanding of reactions to internal and external threats) when coupled with trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT), compared to TF-CBT alone. There was a particular focus on reducing symptoms of trauma, anxiety and depression, whilst improving self-compassion. The participants, 17 fire service professionals who had recently experienced a traumatic event, were split into one of two intervention groups. One group received 12 sessions of TF-CBT and CFT and the other group 12 sessions of TF-CBT alone. The findings revealed that TF-CBT combined with CFT was more effective at improving measures of self-compassion compared with TF-CBT alone. Both groups showed a significant improvements in symptoms of trauma, anxiety and depression.

Author: Scarlet, Altmeyer, Knier & Harpin

The effects of Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT) on health‐care workers (2017)

The effects of Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT) on health‐care workers (2017)

This pilot study aimed to consider the effectiveness of Compassion Cultivate Training (CCT) on measures of burnout, compassion and job satisfaction in health-care workers. The CCT intervention was 8 weeks long in duration and consisted of weekly 2 hour group sessions. During the sessions, participants were taught mindfulness, loving-kindness meditation and compassion and self-compassion skills through education, discussion and practice. Participants (62 healthcare workers) completed measures across four time points; baseline, during the middle of the training, at the end of training and at one month follow up. The findings from the intervention showed that CCT increased mindfulness, self-compassion and job satisfaction, whilst decreasing fears of compassion. CCT was not found to reduce measures of burnout or interpersonal conflict. A limitation of this study was the lack of a comparison/control group.

Author: Beaumont, Irons, Rayner & Dagnall

Does Compassion-Focused Therapy training for health care educators and providers increase self-compassion and reduce self-persecution and self-criticism (2016)

Does Compassion-Focused Therapy training for health care educators and providers increase self-compassion and reduce self-persecution and self-criticism (2016)

This intervention study involved 28 healthcare workers (such as nurses, midwives, counsellors and psychotherapists and other healthcare staff), who undertook a 3 day Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT) workshop. The workshop introduced the core theory around CFT and explored various aspects of compassion and undertook some experiential exercises designed to cultivate compassion. The authors of this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the CFT intervention on improving self-compassion and reducing self-criticism and self-persecution. Measures were taken at three time points, before and after the intervention and at one month follow up. The results from this study found that self-compassion measures had significantly increased following the CFT training, whilst self-critical judgement measures had significantly decreased post intervention. For self-persecution scores, there were no significant changes post CFT training.

Author: Raab, Sogge, Parker & Flament

Mindfulness-based stress reduction and self-compassion among mental healthcare professionals: a pilot study (2015)

Mindfulness-based stress reduction and self-compassion among mental healthcare professionals: a pilot study (2015)

The pilot study involved 8 weekly, 2.5 hour sessions of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR, an educational intervention based on the curriculum developed by Kabat-Zinn, 1982, plus a loving-kindness meditation) and ‘one day of silence’ training on 22 female mental health professionals. The study aimed to investigate the effects of the MBSR intervention on measures of self-compassion, burnout and quality of life. Following the intervention, results showed that self-compassion scores increased significantly, in particular in four of the six self-compassion subscales. However, there were no significant changes found in measures of burnout and quality of life within the sample. These findings suggest that an MBSR intervention can support mental health professionals to improve their levels of self-compassion. It should be noted that the sample size within this study is small and discretional effort of the participants, in terms of mindfulness practice outside of the sessions, was not controlled for.

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Author: Sinclair et al

Compassion: a scoping review of the healthcare literature (2016)

Compassion: a scoping review of the healthcare literature (2016)

This systematic review includes 44 empirical studies that have been published within the last 25 years. There were six emerging themes which considered the perceptions around compassionate care: 1) nature of compassion, 2) development of compassion, 3) interpersonal factors related to compassion, 4) action and practical compassion, 5) barriers and enablers of compassion, and 6) outcomes of compassion. The intervention studies included eight educational programs to improve compassionate care. The various interventions used compassion workshops, training, role plays, mindfulness, reflective learning and other specific practice (such as palliative care training) and found reported improvements in compassion, and perceptions of compassionate care, self-awareness, clinical communication skills, job satisfaction, satisfaction with care provision, and caregiver and workplace wellness. There were also two clinical intervention randomised control trials, investigating compassionate care compared to usual care. The patient-reported outcomes included physician compassion, perceptions of caregiving and reduced number of repeat visits.

Author: Sinclair et al

Compassion: a scoping review of the healthcare literature (2016)

This systematic review includes 44 empirical studies that have been published within the last 25 years. There were six emerging themes which considered the perceptions around compassionate care: 1) nature of compassion, 2) development of compassion, 3) interpersonal factors related to compassion, 4) action and practical compassion, 5) barriers and enablers of compassion, and 6) outcomes of compassion. The intervention studies included eight educational programs to improve compassionate care. The various interventions used compassion workshops, training, role plays, mindfulness, reflective learning and other specific practice (such as palliative care training) and found reported improvements in compassion, and perceptions of compassionate care, self-awareness, clinical communication skills, job satisfaction, satisfaction with care provision, and caregiver and workplace wellness. There were also two clinical intervention randomised control trials, investigating compassionate care compared to usual care. The patient-reported outcomes included physician compassion, perceptions of caregiving and reduced number of repeat visits.

x
Author: Boellinghaus, Jones & Hutton

The role of mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation in cultivating self-compassion and other-focused concern in health care professionals (2014)

The role of mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation in cultivating self-compassion and other-focused concern in health care professionals (2014)

This paper focuses on reviewing mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and their effectiveness in improving healthcare professionals’ self- compassion and other focused concern. After reviewing the literature in this area, the authors found some support that MBIs can increase self-compassion in healthcare professionals, however, they were mixed findings towards whether MBIs influenced other focused concern. LKMs were found to increase both self-compassion and other focused concern. 

Author: Boellinghaus, Jones & Hutton

The role of mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation in cultivating self-compassion and other-focused concern in health care professionals (2014)

This paper focuses on reviewing mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and their effectiveness in improving healthcare professionals’ self- compassion and other focused concern. After reviewing the literature in this area, the authors found some support that MBIs can increase self-compassion in healthcare professionals, however, they were mixed findings towards whether MBIs influenced other focused concern. LKMs were found to increase both self-compassion and other focused concern. 

x
Author: Eriksson, Germundsjo, Astrom & Ronnlund

Mindful Self-compassion Training to Reduce Stress and Burnout Symptoms among practicing psychologists: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Web-Based Intervention (2018)

Mindful Self-compassion Training to Reduce Stress and Burnout Symptoms among practicing psychologists: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Web-Based Intervention (2018)

This randomised control trial study included 81 participants who were all practicing psychologists. The aim was to explore the effects of a 6-week web-based self-compassion intervention on stress and burnout symptoms.  The web-based self-compassion program, which lasted 6 weeks (the intervention was 15 minutes of exercises per day for 6 days a week), included six steps: 1) Kind attention, 2) Kind awareness, 3) Loving kindness with oneself and others, 4) Self-compassion—part 1, 5) Self-compassion—part 2 and 6) Compassion with others and Quiet Practice. Following the trial, the findings showed that the intervention had increased self-compassion (as indicated by the self-compassion scale). Additionally, the intervention group also showed increased mindfulness skills and reductions in perceived stress and burnout symptoms. These findings suggest support for the effectiveness of a web-based self-compassion intervention amongst a sample of psychologists.

Author: Eriksson, Germundsjo, Astrom & Ronnlund

Mindful Self-compassion Training to Reduce Stress and Burnout Symptoms among practicing psychologists: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Web-Based Intervention (2018)

This randomised control trial study included 81 participants who were all practicing psychologists. The aim was to explore the effects of a 6-week web-based self-compassion intervention on stress and burnout symptoms.  The web-based self-compassion program, which lasted 6 weeks (the intervention was 15 minutes of exercises per day for 6 days a week), included six steps: 1) Kind attention, 2) Kind awareness, 3) Loving kindness with oneself and others, 4) Self-compassion—part 1, 5) Self-compassion—part 2 and 6) Compassion with others and Quiet Practice. Following the trial, the findings showed that the intervention had increased self-compassion (as indicated by the self-compassion scale). Additionally, the intervention group also showed increased mindfulness skills and reductions in perceived stress and burnout symptoms. These findings suggest support for the effectiveness of a web-based self-compassion intervention amongst a sample of psychologists.

x
Author: Pidegon, Ford & Klaassen

Evaluating the effectiveness of enhancing resilience in human service professionals using a retreat-based Mindfulness with Metta Training Program: a randomised control trial (2014)

Evaluating the effectiveness of enhancing resilience in human service professionals using a retreat-based Mindfulness with Metta Training Program: a randomised control trial (2014)

This study conducted a randomised control trial with 44 HR professionals in Australia. The intervention included a 2.5 day ( which included periods of silence, mindfulness training and mindfulness and loving-kindness skills and cognitive therapy strategies to increase mindfulness and self-compassion), followed by two ‘booster’ sessions, at one and four months after the retreat. The results from this study found that there were no significant differences in self-compassion, mindfulness and resilience between the retreat and control group directly after the intervention. However, at the one and four month follow up, there were significant increases in self-compassion and mindfulness and the four month follow up, an increase in resilience. These results suggest that a retreat-based intervention can improve self-compassion, mindfulness and resilience levels of human services professionals one month and four months post intervention. Importantly, the findings also suggest that self-compassion, mindfulness and resilience may take longer periods of time to develop following an intervention.

Author: Pidegon, Ford & Klaassen

Evaluating the effectiveness of enhancing resilience in human service professionals using a retreat-based Mindfulness with Metta Training Program: a randomised control trial (2014)

This study conducted a randomised control trial with 44 HR professionals in Australia. The intervention included a 2.5 day ( which included periods of silence, mindfulness training and mindfulness and loving-kindness skills and cognitive therapy strategies to increase mindfulness and self-compassion), followed by two ‘booster’ sessions, at one and four months after the retreat. The results from this study found that there were no significant differences in self-compassion, mindfulness and resilience between the retreat and control group directly after the intervention. However, at the one and four month follow up, there were significant increases in self-compassion and mindfulness and the four month follow up, an increase in resilience. These results suggest that a retreat-based intervention can improve self-compassion, mindfulness and resilience levels of human services professionals one month and four months post intervention. Importantly, the findings also suggest that self-compassion, mindfulness and resilience may take longer periods of time to develop following an intervention.

x
Author: Rao & Kemper

Online training in specific meditation practices improves gratitude, well-being, self-compassion, and confidence in providing compassionate care among health professionals (2017)

Online training in specific meditation practices improves gratitude, well-being, self-compassion, and confidence in providing compassionate care among health professionals (2017)

Within this study 177 healthcare professionals, including nurses, physicians, social workers and others, took part in an online meditation training program which aimed to improve participants wellbeing and self-compassion. The program included three modules, each of which took approximately an hour to complete: 1) gratitude, 2) positive word and 3) loving-kindness/compassion meditation. The findings from pre and post module completion suggested that the online training had significantly improved participants self-compassion, wellbeing, gratitude and confidence in providing compassionate care. The results from this study suggest that, a brief online meditation training programme can improve levels of self-compassion, wellbeing, gratitude and confidence in providing compassionate care amongst healthcare professionals.

Author: Rao & Kemper

Online training in specific meditation practices improves gratitude, well-being, self-compassion, and confidence in providing compassionate care among health professionals (2017)

Within this study 177 healthcare professionals, including nurses, physicians, social workers and others, took part in an online meditation training program which aimed to improve participants wellbeing and self-compassion. The program included three modules, each of which took approximately an hour to complete: 1) gratitude, 2) positive word and 3) loving-kindness/compassion meditation. The findings from pre and post module completion suggested that the online training had significantly improved participants self-compassion, wellbeing, gratitude and confidence in providing compassionate care. The results from this study suggest that, a brief online meditation training programme can improve levels of self-compassion, wellbeing, gratitude and confidence in providing compassionate care amongst healthcare professionals.

x
Author: Beaumont, Durkin, McAndrew & Martin

Using Compassion-Focused Therapy as an adjunct to trauma-focused CBT for fire service personnel suffering with trauma-related symptoms (2016)

Using Compassion-Focused Therapy as an adjunct to trauma-focused CBT for fire service personnel suffering with trauma-related symptoms (2016)

The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT, based on Gilbert’s model to increase awareness and understanding of reactions to internal and external threats) when coupled with trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT), compared to TF-CBT alone. There was a particular focus on reducing symptoms of trauma, anxiety and depression, whilst improving self-compassion. The participants, 17 fire service professionals who had recently experienced a traumatic event, were split into one of two intervention groups. One group received 12 sessions of TF-CBT and CFT and the other group 12 sessions of TF-CBT alone. The findings revealed that TF-CBT combined with CFT was more effective at improving measures of self-compassion compared with TF-CBT alone. Both groups showed a significant improvements in symptoms of trauma, anxiety and depression.

Author: Beaumont, Durkin, McAndrew & Martin

Using Compassion-Focused Therapy as an adjunct to trauma-focused CBT for fire service personnel suffering with trauma-related symptoms (2016)

The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT, based on Gilbert’s model to increase awareness and understanding of reactions to internal and external threats) when coupled with trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT), compared to TF-CBT alone. There was a particular focus on reducing symptoms of trauma, anxiety and depression, whilst improving self-compassion. The participants, 17 fire service professionals who had recently experienced a traumatic event, were split into one of two intervention groups. One group received 12 sessions of TF-CBT and CFT and the other group 12 sessions of TF-CBT alone. The findings revealed that TF-CBT combined with CFT was more effective at improving measures of self-compassion compared with TF-CBT alone. Both groups showed a significant improvements in symptoms of trauma, anxiety and depression.

x
Author: Scarlet, Altmeyer, Knier & Harpin

The effects of Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT) on health‐care workers (2017)

The effects of Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT) on health‐care workers (2017)

This pilot study aimed to consider the effectiveness of Compassion Cultivate Training (CCT) on measures of burnout, compassion and job satisfaction in health-care workers. The CCT intervention was 8 weeks long in duration and consisted of weekly 2 hour group sessions. During the sessions, participants were taught mindfulness, loving-kindness meditation and compassion and self-compassion skills through education, discussion and practice. Participants (62 healthcare workers) completed measures across four time points; baseline, during the middle of the training, at the end of training and at one month follow up. The findings from the intervention showed that CCT increased mindfulness, self-compassion and job satisfaction, whilst decreasing fears of compassion. CCT was not found to reduce measures of burnout or interpersonal conflict. A limitation of this study was the lack of a comparison/control group.

Author: Scarlet, Altmeyer, Knier & Harpin

The effects of Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT) on health‐care workers (2017)

This pilot study aimed to consider the effectiveness of Compassion Cultivate Training (CCT) on measures of burnout, compassion and job satisfaction in health-care workers. The CCT intervention was 8 weeks long in duration and consisted of weekly 2 hour group sessions. During the sessions, participants were taught mindfulness, loving-kindness meditation and compassion and self-compassion skills through education, discussion and practice. Participants (62 healthcare workers) completed measures across four time points; baseline, during the middle of the training, at the end of training and at one month follow up. The findings from the intervention showed that CCT increased mindfulness, self-compassion and job satisfaction, whilst decreasing fears of compassion. CCT was not found to reduce measures of burnout or interpersonal conflict. A limitation of this study was the lack of a comparison/control group.

x
Author: Beaumont, Irons, Rayner & Dagnall

Does Compassion-Focused Therapy training for health care educators and providers increase self-compassion and reduce self-persecution and self-criticism (2016)

Does Compassion-Focused Therapy training for health care educators and providers increase self-compassion and reduce self-persecution and self-criticism (2016)

This intervention study involved 28 healthcare workers (such as nurses, midwives, counsellors and psychotherapists and other healthcare staff), who undertook a 3 day Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT) workshop. The workshop introduced the core theory around CFT and explored various aspects of compassion and undertook some experiential exercises designed to cultivate compassion. The authors of this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the CFT intervention on improving self-compassion and reducing self-criticism and self-persecution. Measures were taken at three time points, before and after the intervention and at one month follow up. The results from this study found that self-compassion measures had significantly increased following the CFT training, whilst self-critical judgement measures had significantly decreased post intervention. For self-persecution scores, there were no significant changes post CFT training.

Author: Beaumont, Irons, Rayner & Dagnall

Does Compassion-Focused Therapy training for health care educators and providers increase self-compassion and reduce self-persecution and self-criticism (2016)

This intervention study involved 28 healthcare workers (such as nurses, midwives, counsellors and psychotherapists and other healthcare staff), who undertook a 3 day Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT) workshop. The workshop introduced the core theory around CFT and explored various aspects of compassion and undertook some experiential exercises designed to cultivate compassion. The authors of this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the CFT intervention on improving self-compassion and reducing self-criticism and self-persecution. Measures were taken at three time points, before and after the intervention and at one month follow up. The results from this study found that self-compassion measures had significantly increased following the CFT training, whilst self-critical judgement measures had significantly decreased post intervention. For self-persecution scores, there were no significant changes post CFT training.

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